Environmental Pollution, Types , Water, Soil, and Air

Definition of pollution

Pollution is defined as ‘an undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water, and land that may be harmful to living organisms, living conditions and cultural assets. It is the unfavorable alteration of our surrounding because of pollutant addition. The pollution may be due to human activities or natural processes.

Natural processes include storms, forest fire, volcanoes and methane from marshy lands. Nature has its own ability to recycle it’s pollutants and renders them less harmful, whereas man-made pollutants threaten the integrity of nature. The substances, which cause pollution, are called pollutants.

A pollutant is defined as any substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment in such a concentration that may have an adverse impact on environmental health and make the environment a polluted environment or polluting the environment.

Types of Pollution or kinds of pollution

The types or kinds of pollution are given below

  1. Soil pollutoin
  2. Water pollution
  3. Air pollution
  4. Automobile pollution
  5. Agricultural pollution
  6. Industrial pollution
  7. Pesticide pollution
  8. Plastic pollution
  9. Heavy metal pollution
  10. Radiation pollution
  11. Oil Pollution
  12. Sewage Pollution
  13. Noise Pollution
  14. Point source pollution
  15. Non point source pollution

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution refers to the undersirable changes in the soil physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contaminants addition by antropogenic activities as well as natural processes.

Soil Pollutant

List of pollutant causes the soil pollution

  1. Industrial effluents and wastes
  2. Plastic and polythene
  3. Organic sediments
  4. Agrochemicals
  5. Sewage
  6. Radioactive Wastes

Water pollution

Water pollution in which water contains enough foreign material to render it unfit for specific use, such as drinking, recreation, etc. Water, being a universal solvent, dissolves many of the substances that facilitate easy contamination. Water pollutant can be classified according to the nature of its origin as a point source or a dispersed source pollutant.

Water Pollutants

List of pollutants responsible for water pollution

  1. Domestic waste
  2. Pathogenic organisms
  3. Organic sediments
  4. Plant nutrients
  5. Toxic organics and inorganic chemicals
  6. Radioactive substances
  7. Heat
  8. Oil residues

Air Pollution

Air pollution refers to the presence of certain substances in the air in enough concentration and duration to cause undesirable effects. The five primary pollutants include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), solid or liquid particulates and particulate lead. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, choking odor which is released from the burning of fossil fuels. The sulfuric acid (H2SO4) mist is a secondary pollutant because it is formed subsequently which causes acid rain. Among the nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is most important. Initially, nitric oxide (NO) formed, which is readily oxidized to NO which contributes to acid rain, considerably incomplete combustion of fossil fuels produces carbon monoxide.

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