Weather Forecasting, its importance, and components
Weather forecasting or Weather forecast is to predict the atmospheric conditions at a given site. With the increase in the observatories and synoptic weather stations record more data of rainfall, temperature, radiation, and wind helps to predict weather more accurately. Various organizations across the world predict weather elements and forecast weather conditions. Accepted standards are developed for measuring, assigning values and codes for different nations.
Observatories record information of different weather elements on the basis of the daily forecasts, warnings, and weather reports are prepared by regional forecasting centers. Regional centers also forecast weather which is known as weather bulletins. These bulletins provide information on the onset of monsoon, duration, intensity, and other adverse weather conditions.
Weather Forecasting Features
The features of weather forecasting are
- Proper recording of data
- Careful study of synoptic charts
- Search for similar situations from the historical data
- preparation of the weather condition charts
- drawing quick, correct, and definite conclusions regarding future weather phenomena.
Sunshine: Sunshine information helps the farmers and other sector peoples to plan their future activities on basis of sunshine duration and intensity on a particular location. Eg. Farmers takes decision like harvesting of crops and drying the farm produce according to the weather forecasting report of Sunshine.
Precipitation: It is the falling of water from the sky in any form (solid, liquid) with the force of gravity. Rainfall is predicted in the forecast at a particular location when less than 1/3 of the specified area is expected to receive rain. Precipitation comprises Rainfall, Fog, Snowfall and mist.
Weather Forecasting Types
- Short Range: The duration of this forecasting is 1-2 days.
- Medium Range: Duration of Medium-Range forecasting is 3-4 days to 2 weeks.
- Long Range: This forecasting is for periods of more than 4 weeks.
Methods of Forecasting
- Synoptic Method: In this method of Weather forecasting, detailed analysis of current weather reports from a large Area. The Current weather patterns are related to the past analogous situations and forecasts are prepared on the assumption that a current situation will behave on the lines of the past analogous situation.
- Statistical Method: In this method of Weather forecasting, regression equations or other sophisticated relationships are established between different weather elements and the resulting climate. Normally, the selection of predictions or weather parameters is based on a possible physical relationship with the predictions.
- Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques: In this method, atmosphere behavior is represented by a set of equations based on physical laws governing air movement, air pressure, and other information. The method is found suitable for medium-range forecasts.