Weather Forecasting, its importance and components
Weather forecasting or Weather forecast is to predict the atmospheric conditions at a given site. With increase in the observatories and synoptic weather stations record more data of rainfall, temperature, radiation and wind helps to predict weather more accurately. Various organization across the world predict weather elements and forecast weather conditions. Accepted standards are developed for measuring, assigining values and codes for different nations.
Observatories records information of different weather element on the basis of daily forcast, warning and weather report are prepared by regional forecasting centres. Regional centers also forecast weather which are known as weather bulletins. These bulletins provide information of onset of monsoon, duration, intensity and other adverse weather conditions.
Weather Forecasting Features
The features of weather forecasting are
- Proper recording of data
- Careful study of synoptic charts
- Search for similar situation from the historical data
- preparation of the weather condition charts
- drawing quick, correct and definite conclusions regarding future weather phenomenon.
Sunshine: Sunshine information is helps the farmers and other sector peoples to plan their future activites on basis of sunshine duration and intensity on a particular location. Eg. Farmers takes decision like harvesting of crops and drying the farm produce according to weather forecasting report of Sunshine.
Precipitation: It is falling of water from sky in any form (Solid, liquid) with force of gravity. Rainfall is predicts in the forecast at a particular location when less than 1/3 of the specified area is expected to receive rain. Precipitation comprise of Rainfall, Fog, Snow fall and mist.
Weather Forecasting Types
- Short Range: Duration of this forecasting is 1-2 days.
- Medium Range: Duration of Medium Range forecasting is 3-4 days to 2 weeks.
- Long Range: This forecasting are for periods of more than 4 weeks.
Methods of Forecasting
- Synoptic Method: In this method of Weather forecasting, detailed analysis of current weather reports from a large Area. The Current weather patterns are related with the past analogous situations and forecasts are prepared on the assumption that a current situation will behave on the lines of the past analogous situation.
- Statistical Method: In this Method of Weather forecasting, regression equations or other sophisticated relationships are established between different weather elements and the resulting climate. Normally, selection of predictions or weather parameters are based on a possible physical relationship with the predictants.
- Numerical Weather prediction Techniques: In this method atmosphere behavior is represented by a set of equations which based on physical laws governing air movement, air pressure and other information. Method is found suitable for medium range forecasts.