Posted inBotany

What is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, autotrophs, for making their food. The term photosynthesis comes from “photo” means light and synthesis means “to make.” So photosynthesis means makes food or matter with energy, with the help of light energy. In photosynthesis reaction, plants make food (matter with energy) with light energy and raw matter. […]

Posted inChemistry

Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics The word kinetics deriv from the Greek word ‘kinesis‘ meaning ‘movement.’ Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry which deals with the study of reaction rates, factors affecting the rate of reactions and the mechanism by which the reactions proceed. In other words, Chemical kinetic is the study of chemical reactions with respect […]

Posted inChemistry


The word ‘electrolysis’ is derived from two words ‘electro’ meaning electrical energy and ‘lysis‘ meaning dissociation (breakdown). The process of decomposition of a molten substance or its aqueous solution by passing an electric current is called electrolysis. In other words, electrolysis is a process in which electrical energy is used to bring about a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. William […]

Posted inChemistry

Ideal Gas Law

Mass (m), volume (V), pressure (p), and temperature (T) is of a gas are the measureable properties. The laws which inter-relate these properties are called gas laws. Perfect Gas or Ideal Gas The gas whose molecules are point masses (mass without volume) and do not attract each other, is called ideal or perfect gas. It is a […]

Posted inChemistry

Colloidal Solution

A colloidal solution is a heterogeneous system which is made up of two phases; dispersed phase (as solute) and a dispersion medium (as solvent). The substance distributed as the colloidal particles is called the dispersed phase and the second phase in which the colloidal particles are scattered is called the dispersion medium. Size of colloidal particles is […]

Posted inChemistry

Emulsions and Suspension

These are liquid-liquid colloidal systems. If a mixture of two immiscible or partially miscible liquids is shaken, an emulsion is obtained. These are generally stabilized by adding certain substances like protein, gum, soap, alcohol, etc called the emulsifying agents or emulsifiers. Types of Emulsions Emulsions are of two types; oil dispersed in water (o/w type) […]

Posted inChemistry


In our daily life, we rarely come across pure substances. Most of these are mixtures containing two or more substances. These mixtures are also called solutions. Depending upon their composition (particles size of the component), these are divided into true, solutions, suspension and colloids. Their utility or importance in life depends on their composition. Solution or […]

Posted inEnvironment

What is Biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important?

What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is termed as the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are the part, and this includes diversity within species, between species and that of ecosystems. It also refers to the interrelatedness of genes, species, and ecosystem […]

Posted inChemistry

Chemical Reaction

Chemical Reaction The process in which substances (reactants) react to form new compounds (products), is known as a chemical reaction. This process involves the breaking of old bonds and formation of new bonds. If bond energies of reactants are greater than the bond energies of products, the reaction occurs with the evolution of energy in […]