What is fungi

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Fungi

What is Fungi?

Fungi have a long history of use by humans. Many types of mushrooms and other fungi are eaten, including button mushrooms, shiitake mushrooms, and oyster mushrooms. Of course, many species of mushrooms are poisonous and are responsible for numerous cases of sickness and death every year. A type of single-celled fungus called yeast is used in baking bread and fermenting alcoholic beverages, while mycelial fungus is used to make Shoyu (soya sauce) and tempeh. Fungi are also used to produce industrial chemicals like lactic acid, antibiotics and even to make stonewashed jeans. Some types of fungi are ingested for their psychedelic properties, both recreationally and religiously. Edible and Poisonous Fungi Some of the most well-known types of fungi are the edible and poisonous mushrooms. Many species are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild. Button mushrooms are the most commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes. Portobello mushrooms are the same

Edible and Poisonous Fungi

Some of the most well-known types of fungi are the edible and poisonous mushrooms. Many species are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild. Button mushrooms are the most commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes. Portobello mushrooms are the same

Some of the most well-known types of fungi are the edible and poisonous mushrooms. Many species are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild. Button mushrooms are the most commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes. Portobello mushrooms are the same species, but are allowed to grow to a much larger size. Other commercially-grown mushrooms that have gained in popularity in the West and are often available fresh in grocery stores include straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitakes (Lentinula edodes), and enokitake (Flammulina spp.). There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale. Milk mushrooms, morels, chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms (also known as king boletes) all command a high price in the market. They are often used in gourmet dishes. It is also a common practice to permit the growth of specific species of mold in certain types of cheeses that give them their unique

There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale. Milk mushrooms, morels, chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms (also known as king boletes) all command a high price in the market. They are often used in gourmet dishes. It is also a common practice to permit the growth of specific species of mold in certain types of cheeses that give them their unique

It is also a common practice to permit the growth of specific species of mold in certain types of cheeses that give them their unique flavour. This mold is non-toxic and is safe for human consumption. This accounts for the blue colour in cheese such as Roquefort or Stilton. Hundreds of mushroom species are toxic to humans, causing anything from upset stomachs to hallucinations to death. Some of the most deadly belong to the genus Amanita. Stomach cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea usually occur within 6-24 hours after ingestion of these mushrooms, followed by a brief period of remission, usually 1-2 days. Patients often fail to present themselves for treatment at this time, assuming that they have recovered. However, within 2-4 weeks liver and kidney failure

Hundreds of mushroom species are toxic to humans, causing anything from upset stomachs to hallucinations to death. Some of the most deadly belong to the genus Amanita. Stomach cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea usually occur within 6-24 hours after ingestion of these mushrooms, followed by a brief period of remission, usually 1-2 days. Patients often fail to present themselves for treatment at this time, assuming that they have recovered. However, within 2-4 weeks liver and kidney failure leads to death if untreated. There is no antidote for the toxins in these mushrooms, but kidney dialysis and administration of corticosteroids may help. Fly agaric mushrooms are also responsible for a large number of poisonings, but these cases rarely result in death.

Fungi in Biological Control of Pests

Many fungi compete with other organisms, or directly infect them. Some of these fungi are considered beneficial because they can restrict, and sometimes eliminate, the populations of noxious organisms like pests, insects, mites, weeds, nematodes and other fungi, such as those that kill plants. There is much interest on the manipulation of these beneficial fungi for the biological control of pests. Some of these fungi can be used as biopesticides, like the ones that kill insects (entomopathogenic fungi). Specific examples of fungi that have been developed as bioinsecticides are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Hirsutella, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, and Verticillium lecanii. In

Fungi Kingdom

  • Mycorrhizal (fungus root): some fungus invades the roots of the plant but instead of harming the seed plants it helps them by assisting in transporting water and minerals from the soils to the roots of the plant. The seed plant, in turn, supplies food to fungi. Fungi of this kind are called Mycorrhizal. A good example of symbiosis.
  • Downy mildews: They produce a downy growth on the surface of infected plant parts usually on leaves. One of the best known downy mildews is the late blight of potatoes. They also cause other plant diseases, they attack tobacco, cabbage, cucumbers, etc.
  • Black bread mold group: usually called mucous. Most of them occurs as fluffy growth on bread, fruits, vegetables and preserved food. They are white at first but soon becomes dark as their spores mature in large number. It develops on bread.
  • Yeast: Occurs wherever simple sugars are available like on fruits, in the sap from trees, in soil (particularly in orchards and vine yards).
  • Brewer’s Yeast: has been bred for high alcoholic fermentation; used in making beer, liquors, commercial alcohol.
  • Baker’s Yeast: is placed in bread dough, it causes the dough to ‘rise’ or expand by producing CO 2.
  • Candida Albicans: responsible for thrush, a disease of mouth and throat.
  • Blue and Green Moulds Group: Aspergillus, ( the primary source of citric acid, used in flavoring candies & fruits) Penicillium (used for antibiotics).
  • Powdery Mildews: as powdery white substance on leaves. They are plant parasites, causes disease of crop plants and ornamentals, including grape, apple, rose, etc.
  • Rusts and Smuts: parasitic, attack higher plants. Most common species is wheat barberry rust.
  • Mushrooms and Toadstools: The first is edible while the second one is poisonous.
  • Imperfect fungi: from the class ‘Deuteromycotina’, parasitic. They are often very destructive to crop and ornamental plants and causes disease in human beings, responsible for ringworm.
  • Lichens : a combination of fungus and an algae; symbiosis; through photosynthesis the algae manufactures all the organic food that they both require. The fungus brings in water and minerals and offers protection to the algae. Certain kinds of lichens yields litmus a dye used as chemical indicators.
  • Yeasts: one celled are eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the Kingdom Fungi. Most reproduce asexually by mitosis and also by budding. Used in baking bread and alcoholic beverages.
  • Mushrooms: the complex is the fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus. Are neither angiosperms or gymnosperms and do not undergo photosynthesis. Edible mushrooms are consumed by humans for their nutritioned and medicinal value and are cultivated.

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